Kleofas Coal Mine


It was established in 1845 and stopped operating in 1867. After the change of ownership in 1881, new shafts were dug, and mining was resumed. The decision to close the mine was made in 2004. Today the Silesia City Center, with a preserved shaft tower, is located in the area of that former mine. 

The European Union, associated with the policy of open borders, is currently surrounded by over 2,000 kilometers of border fences.