PL | EN

Water wars: from ancient to modern times

The Umma-Lagash conflict of around 2500 BC is considered to be the first water war in what was then Mesopotamia and what is now southern Iraq. It was a dispute over the Gu’edena region. Urlama, king of the city-state of Lagash, diverted water from the region into the border canals, draining the border ditches and depriving of water Umma, the neighbouring city-state. Since then, there have been almost 1,300 officially registered conflicts, skirmishes, protests and acts of terrorism related to access to water, including approximately 1,050 since 2000.

Water scarcity affects approximately 40% of the world’s population, and according to UN and World Bank predictions, by 2030, drought may put up to 700 million people at risk of displacement. According to experts from the Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment and Security, most water conflicts are agricultural. For example, in the semi-arid Sahel region in Africa, there are violent clashes between shepherds and farmers over water needed for animals and crops. Other regions particularly vulnerable to conflict over water include the areas of Turkey, Syria, Iraq and western Iran; the Sino-Indian border and the Galwan Valley; the areas of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; the Jordan River and the Levant countries, as well as the Mekong River in China and their neighbours in Southeast Asia.

Competition for water also occurs within the borders of the same country, as exemplified by the USA and the Colorado River. As the river falls to historic lows, tensions rise between the seven states that depend on its flow: Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah and Wyoming.

Read also
Hyperloop, AI financial advisor and “internet” record
Hyperloop, AI financial advisor and “internet” record
A European test centre for Hyperloop, a futuristic transport technology based on capsules moving at around 700 km/h through reduced-pressure tunnels, has been opened in Veendam, the Netherlands. The 420-metre-long tunnel is intended to serve as a space for developing this technology over the next few years. The centre’s director, Sascha Lamme, expects that by […]
E-crimes in e-business and ways to fight e-fraud
E-crimes in e-business and ways to fight e-fraud
Counterfeiting products and selling them on the internet is a violation of the interests of both large companies and small entrepreneurs. Dishonest companies often operate from abroad and steal original product ideas to sell their own versions of the products. This issue has been growing since the pandemic and the e-commerce boom, according to lawyer […]
The new wave of lesbian cinema and harassment in European film and music
The new wave of lesbian cinema and harassment in European film and music
Film critics have praised the latest wave of lesbian cinema as shameless, funny, amoral, and filled with sexuality. This genre includes films such as the romantic thriller “Love Lies Bleeding”, the road movie “Drive-Away Dolls”, “Bottoms”, a buddy comedy set in high school, and “Blue Jean”, a film about a lesbian PE teacher in the […]
Conditions for appropriate brain development: from infant to teenager
Conditions for appropriate brain development: from infant to teenager
A study conducted at Washington University in St. Louis highlights the importance of several factors in the proper development of a child’s brain in their first year, including proper nutrition, sleep, a stimulating environment, a safe environment, proper care, and a regular circadian rhythm. Even if other conditions are unfavorable, providing these five factors guarantees […]
Super-efficient photovoltaics and green energy batteries
Super-efficient photovoltaics and green energy batteries
Electricity suppliers in the US are incorporating lithium-ion batteries into solar and wind projects to store electricity in large quantities. These batteries are designed to maintain a steady flow of electricity even when there is no wind or sun. The US is the second-largest electricity storage market in the world, after China. The total capacity […]
Previous issues