A Venezuelan military and socialist politician. As a critic of the political system in Venezuela, he founded the Bolivarian Revolutionary Movement. The organisation attempted a coup in 1992 which landed Chavez in prison. After his release, Chavez created a Fifth Republic Movement. Between 1999-2013, Chavez was Venezuela’s president. During his tenure he amended the country’s constitution, conducted agricultural reform and nationalized of various industries. He also assisted in constructing cooperatives. Thanks to the proceeds from oil trade, Chavez was able to increase the expenses on education and the health care. The opposition, which disliked the president and his socialist views, in 2002 attempted a coup which received the support of the United States. Chávez died of cancer in 2013.