The inhabitants of Ghouta have experienced the gas attacks at least twice. The most serious one occurred on August 21, 2013, when the area was shelled by sarin-filled rockets. The exact number of victims is unknown. According to various estimates, it was between 281 to 1500 people. The event took place a year after the speech of President Barack Obama, who on August 20, 2012 warned the regime of Bashar al-Assad that the use of chemical weapons will equal crossing the “red line”. The gas attack was supposed to trigger a violent reaction of the United States which, ultimately, didn’t happen.